Category Archives: Ancient Coin Article

SEA & WATER Themed Ancient Greek & Roman Coin Collecting Guide

SEA & WATER Themed Ancient Greek & Roman Coin Collecting Guide

The ancients were a well-traveled people. They built ships for travel and trade and connected vast parts of the world together. They worshipped gods that were connected to the ocean, placed them on their coins and anything else that they found particularly fascinating was placed on their coins. Just as modern-man fishes, enjoys going to the beach, looking at dolphins and traveling by sea, we are a just continuing a long tradition that stretch the millennia. Below find ancient coins that depict the water theme very well. Click on the pictures and links of the coins to see what is available in my eBay online coin shop. Enjoy!


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Article by Ilya Zlobin, world-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine coins and beyond.

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Ships in form of Galleys and look Trireme on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins

Ships and Galleys on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins

The Seafaring Vessels of Ancient Times used for Trade War and Recreation

As you sit and marvel at the piece of history in your hand, you can almost place yourself inside the seafaring vessel and feel the feelings and almost see the sights the ancients went through. The ancient Greek and Roman empires and kingdoms were well inter-connected via the sea route and would have major trade going on between them. An example is that ancient Egypt was a major source of grain supply for the people of ancient Rome. They used ships and galleys to go between each place to spread culture, ideas, goods and even domination. The ancient Romans got major influences from the Greeks which they adapted via the trade and conquests they achieved hundreds of years BC. This article is meant to be as a survey of the types of ancient coins that depicted ships on them.

What is interesting is that there was a major turning point in Western history that had to do with a ship battle that emperor Augustus’ general Agrippa fought against Mark Antony, whom was commanding the fleet of the famous Egyptian queen Cleopatra. This battle in 31 B.C. Actium was the turning point which left the power of the Roman Empire in the hands of one man alone, Augustus. It is interesting to note for example, that the only biological son that Julius Caesar had was growing up under the care of Cleopatra, and if orders were not sent to eliminate him, there would be a rival to the power Augustus had.

It is interesting to also note that ships were depicted on coins of many Greek cities, such as Sidon, Askalon and on coins of King Demetrios Poliorcetes of Macedon, and so much more. The study of ships all on its own could occupy many volumes. The topic had been the focal point of many ancient coin collections.

Search for ships or galleys within my store here.

Just some of the Interesting Coins Depicting Ships on Ancient Coins

authentic ancient silver Roman coin of Mark Antony with Cleopatra's ships for his legionsauthentic ancient silver Roman coin of Mark Antony with Cleopatra's ships for his legions

Mark Antony – Silver Denarius
Struck at Actium 32-31 B.C. for Marc Antony’s III Legion
ANT AVG III VIR R P C, Praetorian galley right.
LEG III , Legionary eagle between two standards.
This famous coin was struck for the battle of Actium in 31 B.C.
where Mark Antony’s ships came head to head with the forces of Augustus’ general, Agrippa.
Authentic Ancient Silver Greek Coin for Sale  Authentic Ancient Silver Greek Coin for Sale

Greek city of Histiaia in Euboia
Silver Tetrobol 15mm (1.43 grams) Struck circa 300-200 B.C.
Reference: Sear 2496; B.M.C. 8. 47-8
Head of nymph Histiaia right, wreathed with vine, hair rolled.
ISTIAIEΩN, nymph Histiaia right on stern of galley, ornamented with wing, holding naval standard.

This type, commemorated the expulsion, with Athenian help of the pro-Macedonian tyrant Philistides in 340 B.C.

 

Constans – Roman Emperor: 337-350 A.D. –
Bronze AE3 18mm (2.96 grams) Thessalonica mint: 348-351 A.D.
Reference: RIC 109 (VIII, Thessalonica)
DN CONSTANS PF AVG – Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
FEL TEMP REPARATIO Exe: TESΔ – Constans standing left on galley, holding Phoenix on globe
and labarum tipped with the Chi-Rho (MONOGRAM of CHRIST); Victory seated to right, steering.
Authentic Ancient Macedonian Greek Coin with Galley Ship TriremeAuthentic Ancient Macedonian Greek Coin with Galley Ship Trireme

Greek Ruler of
Macedonian Kingdom
King Demetrius I Poliorcetes – 294-288 B.C. 

Bronze 15mm (3.95 grams) Struck 294-288 B.C.
Reference: Sear 6775; Newell 20
Head of Demetrius right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet ornamented with bull’s horn.
Prow of galley right; BA above, monogram beneath. 
Constantine the Great Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Commeorating the Founding of Rome  Constantine the Great Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Commeorating the Founding of Rome

Constantine I ‘The Great’- Roman Emperor: 307-337 A.D. –
Founding of New Roman Capital Constantinople Commemorative
Bronze AE3 17mm  Siscia mint circa 330-333 A.D.
Reference: RIC 224 (VII, Siscia)
CONSTANTINOPOLIS – Constantinopolis helmeted, laureate bust left, holding scepter over shoulder.
No Legend Exe: .BSIS. – Victory standing left, stepping on galley prow, cradling scepter
and resting hand on shield.By circa 330 A.D., Constantine the Great completed his new capital for the Roman empire  called Constantinople. For this momentous occasion, he issued two commemorative coin types, one celebrating Rome and the other Constantinople. The type that commemorated Rome had the personification of Rome, Roma with the inscription VRBS ROMA and the founders of Rome, Romulus and Remus on the reverse suckling the she-wolf. The type that commemorated Constantinople had the personification of Constantinople on the obverse and Victory on a galley sailing with a shield. This was a great way for Constantine the Great to pay homage to both Rome and Constantinople.

Authentic Ancient Roman Coin of Hadrian with Galley Trireme for Sale  Authentic Ancient Roman Coin of Hadrian with Galley Trireme for Sale

Hadrian – Roman Emperor: 117-138 A.D. –
Bronze As 26mm (9.54 grams) Rome mint: 125-128 A.D.
Reference: RIC 673, Cohen 446 var., BMC 1342; Strack 619
Pedigree: Ex Gorny & Mosch
HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right.
COS III, galley with rowers & pilot right, SC below.

Reverse refers to Hadrian’s travels around the empire on his first great tour.


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“Show me the money”: A look at investing in rare coins

“Show me the money”: A look at investing in rare coins

Having collectibles as an investment can be a great way to diversify your investment portfolio and minimize risk. The general rule of thumb is to invest in what you love when it comes to collectibles so that if your collection doesn’t realize a return, you still get to enjoy your collection.With uncertainty ever present in the public and private markets coupled with recession and other economic ups and downs, tangible assets, also known as hard assets, present a variety of options for investors who want to put money toward areas of their personal interest. These may include income producing assets such as timberland, farmland, and commodities of all kind.  For more general information on investing in tangible assets, click here. Collectibles are fast becoming a popular investment vehicle for those who have lost trust in the public stock markets or are tired of fluctuations. Tangibles allow an investment to appreciate in value over time, which appeals to investors; however, personal interest in a tangible asset remains the number one reason people choose to invest in collecting them. Rare coins are considered to be a commodity-like investment where sentimental value may exist, but coins are one tangible that can also produce attractive financial returns. Note that there is a distinction between coins as bullion and coins as numismatics. Bullion has a higher ‘melt value’ – the value the metal would be worth if melted down. Numismatic coins, because they are often much older and made of various metals and components, have a lower melt value and are worth less when melted then they are in coin form. The general rule of thumb is to buy bullion for business, numismatics for fun.

This is the second in an AIMkts® series providing an introduction into various subclasses of antiques and collectibles.  This installment:  rare coins.

Why rare coins? 

People collect rare coins for the same reason people collect art, says Ilya Zlobin, ancient numismatic coin expert, dealer and enthusiast of TrustedCoins.com. “Rare coins, especially of the ancient Greeks and Romans capture the feel and the art of the time period [like] statues and architecture that have long been lost to history…” Also, says Zlobin, there is a very high upside resale potential should investors make the right buy for the right price. “…Stories of exponential growth understandable stoke investor interest in the world of collectibles,” according to a 2012 Barclay’s report. However, “Relatively few wealth individuals own treasure solely for its financial characteristics. Investors that do seek financial returns on insurance from their treasure typically favor commodity-like items, such as precious metals, coins and jewelry.” Once nicknamed “the hobby of kings“, collecting coins has become an everyman’s game thanks to a rise in numismatic scholarship, education, access to information and a growing sophistication of the general public over the last 500 years and is popularly referred to as “the king of hobbies”. For the average person, owning coins make possessing a piece of history remarkably accessible, and for those with an interest in antiquities, coins are more accessible, in general, than larger, tangible asset investments. For beginners, collecting rare coins may seem daunting. Experts and experienced collectors offer this advice:

  • Specialize – Choose a particular emperor, denomination, theme or time period and use it to guide how you invest. Stay focused on a particular concentration and build within that. Financier Louis E. Eliasberg did just that and his collection got him listed among the world’s most famed collectors.
  • Scrutinize – Don’t just pick randomly from your choices. Know what you’re looking for and examine coins carefully to make sure they fit with the direction you’re taking your collection.
  • Study – Collectors shouldn’t just take the opinions or advice of sellers. Collectors should become experts themselves, studying up on values, denominations, rarity and other aspects of the area in which they intent to collection so as to make an informed decision when investing. Read trade magazines, talk to other collectors and learn what questions to ask. Never buy what you don’t understand. Study up on some coin collecting lingo here.
  • Start Small – Buying small will allow investors to start collecting without betting the farm. Buying large quantities of coins or buying high priced coins should only come with experience. While buying rare coins or coins minted with historically importance is ideal, amateur or inexperience collectors should never spend large amounts of money on coins they don’t understand. Collector and numismatics mentor Susan Headley notes, “If you can’t afford to shell out $2,000 [per] coin to buy…high grades, then buy common coins in the finest grades you can.”

Grading Adding to that advice, we caution all coin investors to know their dealer. Investing in rare coins is as much as investment as putting money toward any asset class – trust is key. As a purveyor of rare coins, Zlobin notes that the grading scale is subjective one, with Good (G) being the lowest, to Very Good (VG), then Fine (F) followed by Very Fine (VF), followed by Extra Fine (EF) and finally, a perfect mint-state called Fleur-De-Coin (FDC). The overall appearance of a coin and its appeal to buyers and sellers alike are all highly subjective matters and grading standards may vary. Well-known houses like Heritage Auctions provide some guidance and the Professional Coin Grading Service, among others, can give a point of reference as well, but keep in mind that very fine distinctions between coins will make a big difference in its worth, even thousands of dollars’ worth of difference for the smallest distinction. Subjectivity is considered to be one of the risks in rare coin investing. “With many dealers and collectors, the coin’s state of preservation and aesthetic beauty are of paramount importance. In other words a beautiful coin is more desirable, and also much rarer in that state of preservation,” says Zlobin. “There are other things that are important for ancient numismatic coins, too, such as centering, the artistic beauty of the strike and its sharpness. Ancient coins were struck by hand, so a coin in fantastic preservation that is nicely centered and of an interesting historical character, period or city would have higher value.” Speaking of risk… “Caveat emptor” says Zlobin. “Deal with people that provide a guarantee and a good track record with their coins [and] with people you know and trust. Always ask for the best possible price.” Just like any investment has inherent risk, coin collecting is no different. Are the risks any greater or less than investing anywhere else? Not if you invest in what you love, say collectors. “There are many reputable dealers out there,” says Zlobin “It is a very big advantage to deal with them, as many have knowledge and experience, and know that it’s just good business to sell only authentic coins.” However, the Federal Trade Commission has issued warnings to help protect consumers from fraud. Read the warning here. False claims about grading, current value and buy back options are the most common ways investors lose money when collecting coins. “Examine coins in person. It’s difficult, if not impossible, to make a practical decision about buying a particular coin based on a photo or a conversation with the seller,” advises the FTC. “Check out any coin dealers in a search engine online. Read about other people’s experiences. Try to communicate offline if possible to clarify any details. In addition, contact your state Attorney General and local consumer protection agency.” And always get a second opinion. Zlobin’s risk advice to investors is:

  • Always try to get the best possible price – Investing in rare coins doesn’t have to break your bank. Some dealers can give you breaks as the margins are often-times sufficient for everyone to be happy.
  • Be detached about the outcome of the deal – Do your best to secure a great deal, but be an investor that can also think as a collector. This way you win either way.
  • Keep records of how much you paid for a coin, and all receipts – This will give you a record of the coin’s grade, and purchase information.  Also, if you want to sell these investments and realize a profit, you’ll need to be organized.
  • Work with dealers willing to prove themselves – Some dealers provide a lifetime guarantee of authenticity, and some will issue certificates of authenticity.

Return on Investment In general, investors can expect rare coins to have an investment horizon similar to most other investments – one that will last for a few months to many years. “I have seen ancient coins sold at one major auction house, to be sold just several months later and for more money at another auction house,” says Zlobin. “Yes, it is possible to make money rather quickly with intimate knowledge of the market [but] the money in ancient numismatic coins is made during the purchase of the item. A good rule of thumb is to always do your research and know that you can at least get what you paid for the coin back… With uncertainties about the valuations of all the global currencies, it is a good idea to hedge your net worth with this being a great avenue for storing wealth. Numismatic coins especially may carry a higher resale value than gold or silver bullion, as they are not as prone to those specific market fluctuations.” There are professional numismatic reference sites, where investors can trace the price trends of many different coin types going back many years and get an idea of how certain coins will fare on the resale market. Although any investment carries risk, and although almost all dealers of any investment will tell you that “past performance is not an indicator of future results”, investors can make informed decisions about their coins by taking a look at how the pros have traced them through the years. Is collecting rare coins for you? So, who are the buyers of rare coins? For the most part, they are anyone who is interested in owning a tangible piece of history. “For ancient numismatic coins specifically, the historical value is very important,” Zlobin says. “For example, a Julius Caesar coin sells in any market in practically any condition. Another well-known name would be Alexander the Great.” Coin collecting, known as “the king of hobbies” is an investment almost anyone can make. For serious investors, coins are a tangible asset that will provide diversity in an investment portfolio and help hedge against inflation as the value of rare coins is generally stable. “A lot of people don’t know this, but ancient coins are actually quite abundant,”according to Zlobin. Some celebrities and many other famous individuals are known to be avid coin collectors such as J.P. Morgan, the Hunt brothers hockey great Wayne Gretzky, Buddy Ebsen (aka “Jed Clampett”), and Nicole Kidman. “Coins, especially numismatic coins, are a beautiful asset to have,” says Zlobin. “Think about how tough it would be to fit a huge painting or a statue or another heavy work of art in your pocket, but an ancient coin can be placed in your pocket, yet be worth quite a lot of money. So you can say the reason why coins are so popular is that they are the original form of money and will always have some sort of value, whether intrinsic or numismatic, or both.”

By Alicia Purdy, Contributing Editor, Accredited Investor Markets

Reprinted with permission from Accredited Investor Markets (www.aimkts.com)



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CHARIOTS as shown on Authentic Ancient Greek & Roman Coins for Sale on eBay

Ancient Greek and Roman Chariots on Coins

Biga Ancient Roman Chariot Coin

See the different types of chariots depicted on coins of ancient Greece and Rome

The ancient Greeks and Romans used the chariot for war, racing, processions and travel. On ancient coins, the chariot was featured being driven by emperors, important personages and even gods and goddesses. They were usually pulled by horses, but on ancient coins sometimes even by flying serpents and goats. There is a certain excitement associated with the chariot that is almost archetypal. The Latin word “carrus” is the root of the English word “chariot”. Imagine the excitement the ancient spectators would feel as they saw chariots racing around the Circus Maximus in Rome or even other parts of the empire. Chariots are a fascinating topic of study and collecting. See the sights and feel the feeling with these authentic ancient coins depicting the chariot here.

Click here to see all coins with a chariot.

Biga Ancient Roman Chariot Coin Triga Three Horse Chariot Ancient Roman Coin Triumphal Quadriga Four Horse Chariot Roman Coin Sol the Sun God in Four Horse Drawn Quadriga Chariot

Biga, Triga and Quadriga chariots on ancient ancient Roman coins. Biga means a two horse, triga means a three horse and a quadriga means four horse chariot.

A chariot pulled by goats!

By winged serpents, with this depiction of Triptolemus.

By even elephants! There is even a story about Pompey the Great who tried to use a chariot pulled by elephants for his triumphal march through Rome. It couldn’t fit through the gates though, so he had to get on a regular chariot pulled by horses. There was a Greek general who had a battle on the streets of one of the Greek cities he tried to conquer. One of his commanders tried sending an elephant through the doorway into the city. However, the elephant got stuck and the re-enforcements could not come for the battle. Also it was Seleukos I of the Seleukid kingdom, who traded the territories Alexander the Great won in northern India for 500 War elephants. Hannibal also apparently used the war elephants. Alexander the Great battled elephants in India mounted by archers. Interesting and exciting creatures elephants are!

Interesting type issued for Constantine, for his deification, where he is pictured taking a quadriga (four horse) chariot up to heaven with the hand of God accepting him.



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Chronological LIST of PEOPLE who were on ANCIENT ROMAN Coins for Sale on eBay

Chronological List of All Roman Emperors, Empresses and other Important Personages on Ancient Coins

A List to be used as a Guide to Putting Together a Collection of Ancient Roman Coins that Includes Names of People who Issued Coins, Including the Rare Ones!

Feel the past as you explore the ancient world through these historical ancient Roman coins of the emperors, empresses and important personages. Below is an almost complete list of all ancient Roman historical personages that have ever struck a coin. A challenge for some, who are willing to accept it, is to collect a single coin of every single emperor. This list is available inside my eBay as the ‘Collecting Guide Link‘. Some of these emperors are more rare than others, so you may want to be the first to buy them before they’re gone into a collection forever! Some people choose to take the route of building up a collection of every single emperor, or sometimes, every single emperor and empress, and it may take a lifetime, but the challenge is exciting. You can build up a collection without some or the rarer emperors and empresses in an affordable fashion for almost anyone. Some people value a collection of ancient Roman coins as more valuable as it takes time and effort to put it together. With the list below, you can search my ancient coins store and find the right coins out of thousands that are available! Just click on each one of the names and it will search it automatically for any examples that I may have available. Or download it, print and use it as a checklist for your collection. The benefit of this list is that you can use it to put together a collection quickly and easily



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Women in the Empires & Kingdoms – The Royal Ladies on Ancient Greek & Roman Coins

Women in the Empires & Kingdoms – The Royal Ladies on Ancient Greek & Roman Coins

Women portrayed on coins, the empresses, queens and divas on the historical coins of ancient Greece and Rome

The ancient times were populated with many royal rulers. Many people do not even look at the power behind the throne was actually, many times, a woman. Some of the ones that capture the imagination being Queen Cleoptra VII of Egypt, lover to both Julius Caesar and Mark Antony and mother to their children. Without the role of women in history, we are missing fifty percent of the historical context or more. Many of the coins these women issued are still available for our collecting pleasure. The goal of this guide is to give you a list of just some of the women portrayed on coins of the ancient times. You can click on the name of each of the women on this list and easily search my eBay coin store to see her ancient coins available for sale and learn more about each. You may want to also visit the ancient Roman coin collecting guide which has a chronological list of the emperors and empresses of the Roman empire.

  1. Cleopatra, anything related to her name, there being several Cleopatras in history, one of them being the lover of Julius Caesar and Mark Antony
  2. Livia Drusilla wife of Augustus
  3. Agrippina Jr., wife of Claudius, mother of Nero
  4. Poppaea, wife of Nero – Roman Emperor: 54-68 A.D.
  5. Domitia, wife of Domitian
  6. Faustina I Roman Empress and wife of Antoninus Pius
  7. Faustina II Roman Empress Marcus Aurelius wife and mother of Commodus
  8. Lucilla, Roman empress, wife of Lucius Verus
  9. Crispina, wife of emperor Commodus
  10. Julia Domna Roman Empress 193-217 A.D.
  11. Plautilla, Empress wife of emperor Caracalla
  12. Julia Soaemias – Roman Empress Mother of Elagabalus, Roman Emperor 218-222 A.D.
  13. Julia Paula – Roman Empress & First wife of Emperor Elagabalus
  14. Julia Maesa – Grandmother of Roman Emperors Elagbalus & Severus Alexander
  15. Julia Mamaea Roman Empress Severus Alexander mother
  16. Tranquillina, Roman Empress wife of Gordian III
  17. Herennia Etruscilla Roman Empress wife of Trajan Decius
  18. Salonina – Roman Empress Wife of Gallienus
  19. Severina, wife of Aurelian – Roman Emperor 270-275 A.D
  20. Galeria Valeria Roman Empress wife of Galerius 308-311 A.D.
  21. Saint Helena Roman Empress Mother of Constantine the Great
  22. Fausta, Roman empress wife of Constantine I the Great
  23. Aelia Flacilla Roman Empress Theodosius I Wife 379-385 A.D.
  24. Eudoxia – Roman Empress wife of Arcadius
  25. Sophia, wife of Justin II – Byzantine Emperor: 565-578 A.D.
  26. Eudocia, wife of Constantine X – Byzantine Emperor 1059-1067 A.D.

 



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Fire Signal Beacons depicted as the Turrets on Camp Gates of Ancient Roman Coins

Fire Signal Beacons depicted as the Turrets on Camp Gates of Ancient Roman Coins

How the Romans controlled a vast empire through outposts on their frontiers using fire signals to marshal their forces

 

Examples of ancient Roman camp gates from the period of Constantine I featuring 2-4 turrets

A recent interpretation or meaning has come about that the turrets on fourth century camp gates were actually a sort of a signal beacon, using fires to send messages. Most ancient Roman coins depicting the camp gate featured the inscription PROVIDENTIAE AVG or PROVIDENTIAE CAES. The root of the word providentia is provideo which means foresight.  Providentia being the quality of the emperor caring for his people with an aspect of it, looking out for the security of the frontier. As the ancient Roman coins were used by the Roman emperors as propaganda pieces, it is likely the message it communicated the people were safe from invasions. During this time period, protection of the frontier would have been an important issue for the empire.

The fire signal was used since the time of the Greeks, so it is likely that these coins actually were a way of saying that he had improved it and made it more effective. One of the most famous examples of the fire signal being used was during the American Revolution by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in his famous poem Paul Revere’s ride. “One if by land two if by sea”. This helped Paul Revere to receive the signal and raise everyone of to arms.

It was the author Polybius, who lived circa 200-118 B.C., that informs us that Philip V, the king of Macedon was being kept informed of what happened in Phocis and Boeotia by fire signal. And Julius Caesar was informed by fire signal about the movement of Pompey the Great’s troops during the civil war.

Polybius described two systems of using the fire signal. One was having two vessels of water of the same size and the same sized hole in them. At each level of water was a specific agreed-upon message. So when the torch was raised, the other tower would open the cork and was then given the signal to stop the water at the specific message. This would have been useful system and efficient with practice, however it could not send unforeseen messages. So Polybius describes a system which he claims to have refined using two sets of five torches, dividing the alphabet into five parts. So for the first letter one torch on the left would be lifted, and one torch on the right. For letter number six, two torches on the left and one on the right and so forth.

The ancient author Polybius writes:

“I don’t think I can continue without a full discussion of fire signaling, which is now of the greatest military value, but which used to have major shortcomings. Timing is obviously important for success in any matter; but especially in war, and fire signals are the most efficient means of helping us. They can tell us what has only just happened or even what is currently happening and, with them, anyone who wishes can be kept informed even at a range of three, four, or more day’s travel. Help can thus be summoned by signal surprisingly quickly when needed. At one time, fire signals were just beacons, and so were frequently of only limited use to their users. For they could only be used for pre-arranged signals and as real events are unpredictable, they could generally not be communicated by fire-signals. If we take the example I have just mentioned [Philip V ], one could send news that a fleet had arrived at Oreus, Peparethus or Chalcis, once one had arranged the relevant signals, but once could still not use fire signals to say that some of the inhabitants had changed sides, or been guilty of treachery, or that a massacre had happened in the town, or anything else of this nature. This sort of thing happens often but cannot be anticipated and it is generally the unexpected events, which demand fast decisions and responses. yet it was here the earlier system broke down, because it is impossible to agree on a signal for what one cannot foresee.”

Another ancient author Julius Africanus from 220-245 A.D., describes how a fire signal was sent in his work the Kestoi:

“The Romans have the following technique, which seems to me to be amazing. If they want to communicate something by fire signal, they make the signals so: they select places that are suitable for making fire signals. They divide the fires into a right, a left and a middle fire so they read alpha to theta from the left-hand one, iota to pi from the middle one and rho to omega from the right-hand fire. If they signal alpha, they raise up the fire signal on the left once, for beta twice and for gamma three times. If they signal iota they raise the middle fire once, for kappa twice and for lambda thrice, and if they want to signal rho, sigma or tau, they raise the right-hand signal once, twice or three times. In this way should you want to signal rho you do not need to raise hundreds of fire signals, but, only one with the right-hand torch. Those who receive the signals then de-code them in the same way, or pass them on to the next station.”

The system that this ancient author describes would work well with either the Greek or Roman alphabet as both have 24 letters. This description fits the three-turreted camp gate precisely. So it would be easy to adapt this fire signal to 2, turrets by having each beacon being 12 letters, 3 being 8 letters, and 4 being 6 letters each.

The ancient description that we saw is a simple rudimentary understanding of it. As this technology had obviously undergone many great adjustments. And this being a highly sensitive technology for the Roman army, the exact codes would have been kept a closely-guarded secret. It is possible that they may have also developed signal of a type similar to the modern Morse code for an even more efficient communication system.


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See also:



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List of GODS & GODDESSES on Ancient Greek & Roman Coins for Sale on eBay

List of GODS & GODDESSES on Ancient Greek & Roman Coins
including the Deities and Mythical Characters to Collect

A world of mystery, intrigue and fantasy awaits. See the various gods, goddesses, and mythical deities and characters available to collect on ancient Greek and Roman coins. Transport yourself to the ancient past, explore the unexplored and collect authentic ancient coins of those various deities. This article was intended to expand on various ideas for a coin collector and a fantastic coin collection. By clicking on the links below, you will search my eBay store for specific examples of these these gods that I have available on coins. The goal is for you to have an easy-to-use guide, which allows you to view the different types of coins easily and quickly. Below is a link to download this article in PDF format to your computer, which will allow you to come back to this info in the future, or if you print it out, you can always find this article again online via the link: http://www.trustedancientcoins.com/list-of-gods/

  1. Zeus on Ancient Greek Coins | Jupiter, his Roman Equivalent Ancient Coins
  2. Hercules on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  3. Ares on Ancient Greek Coins | Mars, his Roman Equivalent Ancient Coins | Virtus, the god of valor, often depicted like Mars or Ares on ancient Roman Coins
  4. Nymph the Ancient Greek Deity depicted on Greek and Roman coins
  5. Felicitas the Ancient Roman goddess of luck | Fortuna the Ancient Roman goddess of luck | Tyche the Ancient Greek goddess of luck – Luck goddesses.
  6. Hera on Ancient Greek Coins | Juno the Ancient Roman Goddess on Coins
  7. Nike, the ancient Greek goddess of victory ancient coins | Victory the Ancient Roman Goddess of Victory – Both I believe to be the ancient depictions of what later was known to be angels.
  8. Apollo on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins, the god of music, healing and light (sun)
  9. Helios, the sun god, on Ancient Greek Coins | Sol, the sun god, on Ancient Roman Coins
  10. Artemis, the goddess of the hunt on Ancient Greek Coins | Diana, the goddess of the hunt on Ancient Roman Coins
  11. Aphrodite, the goddess of love on Ancient Greek Coins | Venus, the goddess of love on Ancient Roman Coins
  12. Spes, the goddess of hope on ancient Roman coins | Elpis, the goddess of hope on ancient Greek coins
  13. Laetitia, the goddess of happiness on ancient Roman coins
  14. Isis, the originally ancient Egyptian goddess on ancient Roman and Greek coins
  15. Athena the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom on coins | Minerva the ancient Roman goddess of wisdom on coins
  16. Concordia, goddess of agreement in marriage and society on ancient Roman Coins
  17. Aequitas on ancient Roman CoinsAequitas is the nominative form of the Latin æquitatem, meaning justice, equality, conformity, symmetry, or fairness, and is the source of the modern word “equity”.
  18. Justitia, the Roman goddess of Justice on ancient Roman Coins
  19. Eros, the primordial god of sexual love and beauty on Ancient Greek Coins | Cupid, the primordial god of sexual love and beauty on Ancient Roman Coins
  20. Libertas, the god of liberty on ancient Roman coins
  21. Pietas, the god of piety on ancient Roman coins
  22. Vesta on ancient Roman coins – Vesta was the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman religion.
  23. Genius on ancient Roman coins – In ancient Roman religion, the genius was the individual instance of a general divine nature that is present in every individual person, place, or thing.
  24. Demeter on ancient Greek coins | Ceres on ancient Roman coins | Annona on ancient Roman coins – Goddesses that are depicted in connection with the harvest.
  25. Asclepius the Ancient Greek and Roman god of medicine
  26. Hygeia on Ancient Greek and Roman coins – Hygieia, or Hygeia, was a daughter of the god of medicine, Asclepius. She was the goddess of health, cleanliness and sanitation and afterwards, the moon.
  27. Salus on Ancient Roman coins – Salus (Health) a Goddess of the Romans, the same that was worshipped under the name of Hygiea by the Greeks, who feigned her to be the daughter of Asclepius and of Minerva.
  28. Telesphorus on Ancient Greek and Roman coins –  In Greek mythology, Telesphorus (or Telesphoros; Τελεσφόρος) was a son of Asclepius. He frequently accompanied his sister, Hygieia. He was a dwarf whose head was always coveredwith a hood or cap. He symbolized recovery from illness, as his name means “the accomplisher” or “bringer of completion” in Greek.
  29. Persephone on Ancient Greek and Roman coins | Kore on Ancient Greek and Roman coins – In Greek mythology, Persephone also called Kore (the maiden) is the daughter of Zeus and the harvest-goddess Demeter, and queen of the underworld.
  30. Priapus on Ancient Greek and Roman coins – In Greek mythology, Priapos (Ancient Greek: Πρίαπος), Latinized as Priapus, was a minor rustic fertility god, protector of livestock, fruit plants, gardens and male genitalia. His Roman equivalent was Mutunus Tutunus. He was best noted for his huge, permanent erection, which gave rise to the medical term priapism.
  31. Poseidon on Ancient Greek and Roman coins | Neptune on Ancient Roman coins – Poseidon was the god of the sea, and, as “Earth-Shaker,” of earthquakes in Greek mythology. Neptune (Latin: Neptūnus) was the god of water and the sea in Roman mythology and religion.
  32. Pax, the goddess of peace on Ancient Roman coins | Eirene, the goddess of peace on Ancient Roman coins
  33. Janus the Ancient Roman God of Beginnings and Endings, doors and name behind our month January
  34. Abundantia, the ancient Roman goddess – Abundantia was the Roman goddess of good fortune, abundance and prosperity.
  35. Hermes, Greek god of commerce | Mercury, the Roman equivalent of the Greek god Hermes
  36. Three Graces, also known as the Charites on ancient Greek and Roman coins
  37. River Gods on Ancient Greek and Roman coins
  38. Kronos, the ancient Greek time god

See also:



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Article by Ilya Zlobin, world-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine coins and beyond.

Greek and Roman Gods and Goddesses on Ancient Coins

Animals on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins List for Collecting

Animals on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins

A list of the different animals that have appeared on ancient Greek and Roman coins

Wild, exotic animals, available throughout the ancient Greek and Roman empires were revered and even struck on their coins. Animals such as antelopes, lions and elephants were brought to amphitheaters, the most famous being the Colosseum and for use in various entertainments. Many Roman legions used animals as a symbol for their legions. Just like we have zoos in modern times, the ancients too were fascinated by the exotic beauty and even possible danger these animals presented. The ancient Greeks and Romans put animals on their coins and are a very interesting topic in themselves to collect, especially for animal lovers. The goal of this guide is to help you know the type of animals on coins and make it easy to put together a collection from my eBay ancient coin store, which has thousands of coins available. You can click on each of the links below and see the examples I have available for sale. A world of intrigue, wonder and amazement awaits you as you explore this fascinating topic …

  1. Horse on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  2. Bull on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  3. Cow on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  4. Calf on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  5. Ox on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  6. Boar “pig” on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  7. Pig on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  8. Lion on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  9. Panther on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  10. Eagle on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  11. Owl on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  12. Peacock on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  13. Dove on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  14. Rooster on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  15. Chicken on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  16. Rooster on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  17. Rabbit on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  18. Hare on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  19. Ram on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  20. Wolf on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  21. Dog on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  22. Hound on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  23. Camel on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  24. Stag another word for deer on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  25. Bee another word for deer on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  26. Antelope another word for deer on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  27. Elephant on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  28. Snake on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  29. Serpent on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  30. Fish on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  31. Crayfish on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  32. Shell on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  33. Crab on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  34. Turtle on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  35. Dolphin on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  36. Octopus on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins
  37. Scorpion on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins

See also for mythical creatures:



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Article by Ilya Zlobin, world-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine coins and beyond.

Most Interesting Ancient Coins to Buy for a Collection, Investment and Pleasure

Most Interesting Ancient Coins to Buy for a Collection, Investment and Pleasure

Top 10 List of Well-Known Personalities of Ancient Greece and Rome with numismatic Coins for Sale on eBay, Reasonably Priced

This guide is designed to introduce you to just 10 different topics of interest for collecting and possibly even as alternative investing ideas. These are well known personalities of the ancient past that people will likely appreciate in the future, giving you well-known, historically significant types that could be some of the most valued coins by collectors in the future. Also, a lot of the coins given here, although having rare types, are quite plentiful, and eeasily found in my eBay store. You can also learn about the different ancient coins with many educational videos about coins on my Youtube channel.

#1 Alexander the Great Coins – His coins are just fantastic to own and collect because even though thousands of years have passed, his name is known by more people than ever before with great films and books about his life and conquests.

Authentic Ancient Silver and Bronze Coins of Alexander the Great Macedonian King Certified AuthenticAuthentic Ancient Silver and Bronze Coins of Alexander the Great Macedonian King Certified Authentic

#2 Constantine the Great Coins – Also known as Christian saint or Saint Constantine. His coins are very affordable to own and can be as low as twenty dollars.

Constantine I the Great Certified Authentic Ancient Roman Coins of First Christian EmperorConstantine I the Great Certified Authentic Ancient Roman Coins of First Christian Emperor Reverse

#3 Saint Helena Roman Empress Mother of Constantine the Great – Very influential woman in early Christianity.

St. Helena Mother of Constantine the Great Certified Authentic Ancient Roman Coins for SaleSt. Helena Mother of Constantine the Great Certified Authentic Ancient Roman Coins for Sale

#4 Jesus Christ Coins and Coins Connected with Him – Early Roman coins did not depict the image of Christ, but did depict things associated with him such as the Chi-Rho, cross, and phoenix.

Jesus Christ Certified Authentic Ancient Medieval Byzantine Coins for Sale from Trusted Coin DealerJesus Christ Certified Authentic Ancient Medieval Byzantine Coins for Sale from Trusted Coin Dealer

#5 Philip II ancient Greek coins connected with Olympic Games Victory – Very interesting and affordable ancient Greek coins associated with the ancient Olympic games.

Philip II Olympic Games Nude Athlete Certified Authentic Ancient Greek Coins for Sale Apollo

#6 Roman Republic Coins – This is an interesting time period, before Rome turned into an empire and had dictators, and has a lot of interesting symbolism to the Roman Republic and it’s virtues.

Certified Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Republic Coins for Sale from Trusted Coin Dealer  Certified Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Republic Coins for Sale from Trusted Coin Dealer

#7 Julius Caesar coins – These coins are always great to own because of the name and are a great coin if you ever need to resell it because of it’s popularity.

Julius Caesar Certified Authentic Ancient Silver and Bronze Coins for Sale with And without Portrait from Best Coin Dealer   Julius Caesar Certified Authentic Ancient Silver and Bronze Coins for Sale with And without Portrait from Best Coin Dealer
#8 Athens Attica Greece ancient Greek coins – Probably the most famous ancient Greek city, and her coins are fascinating.

Athens Attica Greece Certified Authentic Ancient Silver Bronze and Gold Coins for Sale  Athens Attica Greece Certified Authentic Ancient Silver Bronze and Gold Coins for Sale

#9 Augustus first Roman emperor coins – Very interesting emperor, whom actually had a period of peace called “Pax Romana” and issued many coins, making them very affordable.

Augustus Silver Bronze Gold Authentic Ancient Roman Coins for Sale from Trusted Coin DealerAugustus Silver Bronze Gold Authentic Ancient Roman Coins for Sale from Trusted Coin Dealer

#10 Marcus Aurelius coins – The very famous emperor, known for his writings and depicted in the movie Gladiator, his coins being quite popular.

 



Download this article by right-clicking here and selecting save as

Article by Ilya Zlobin, world-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine coins and beyond. Authentic Ancient Silver and Bronze Coins of Alexander the Great Macedonian King Certified Authentic